Gupta et al. (2007) evaluated the climate policy literature. They found that no relevant assessment of the UNFCCC or its protocol has stated that these agreements have been or will be successful in addressing the climate problem.  These assessments provided that the UNFCCC or its protocol would not be amended. The Framework Convention and its Protocol contain provisions for future policies. The Kyoto Protocol implemented the UNFCCC`s goal of reducing the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to a “level that prevents dangerous anthropogenic intervention in the climate system” (Article 2). The Kyoto Protocol applies to the six greenhouse gases listed in Annex A: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen gas (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).  In 2001, the previous session (COP6 bis) continued in Bonn, at which the necessary decisions were taken. After some concessions, supporters of the protocol (led by the European Union) managed to secure the agreement between Japan and Russia by allowing more levels of carbon dioxide.
Since Mr Trump`s announcement, US envoys have continued to participate – as planned – in UN climate negotiations in order to shore up the details of the deal. Meanwhile, thousands of leaders across the country have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the overwhelming majority of Americans who support the Paris Agreement. Among city and state officials, business leaders, universities, and individuals, there has been a wave of participation in initiatives such as America`s Pledge, the U.S. Climate Alliance, We Are Still In, and the American Cities Climate Challenge. Complementary and sometimes intersecting movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to combat climate change at local, regional and national levels. Each of these efforts focuses on achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement, despite Trump`s attempts to steer the country in the opposite direction. The Kyoto Protocol requires 37 industrialised countries and the EU to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Developing countries have been asked to comply voluntarily and more than 100 developing countries, including China and India, have been fully exempted from kyoto. .