The Schengen area was officially created in 1995. Over time, more countries have signed the Schengen Agreement, becoming part of the Schengen area. The Schengen Agreement comprises two separate agreements, ratified in 1985 and 1990 respectively. Together, they have abolished border controls and greatly facilitated transit across Europe. The two individual agreements stipulate that the following European micro-states have opened their borders with the Schengen states, but that they are not formally members of the Schengen Agreement: the Schengen Borders Code obliges the participating states to remove all obstacles to the free movement of persons at internal borders.  Thus, road, rail and passenger users are no longer checked by border guards for their identity when travelling between Schengen countries, although security checks of air carriers remain permitted.  In accordance with EU guidelines, it is recommended that all EU citizens bring a passport and/or identity card, as this is required. At the end of 2009, Norway began issuing one-year visas to enter several times without the usual requirement to have a family or business partner in Norway, called Visa Pomor, to Russians from the Murmansk region and then to those from the Arkhangelsk region.  Finland does not provide for border permits, but it issued more than one million regular visas to Russians in 2011, many of which are multiple entry visas. The EU has planned to allow up to five years of validity for multiple visas for Russians.  The Danish territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland are also not part of the European Union or the Schengen area.
Permits are issued with a validity period of between one and five years and allow you to stay in the border area for a maximum of three months. Permits can only be issued to legitimate residents of the border area who have been in the border area for at least one year (or more, if the bilateral agreement so provides). Applicants for approval must demonstrate that they have legitimate reasons for frequently crossing an external land border under the local border transport regime. Schengen States must keep a central register of authorisations issued and allow other Schengen States immediate access to relevant data. In addition to the possibility of visiting 26 Schengen countries with a single document, you can also visit other countries that are not part of this territory. A number of countries around the world allow foreigners holding a multiple-entry Schengen visa to enter and stay on their territory for a limited period of time, for example two weeks. Originally, the Schengen area had its legal basis outside the European Economic Community at the time, since it was created by a subset of the Community Member States through two international agreements: of the five European micro-states, only Liechtenstein is officially part of the Schengen area. The other three – Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City – keep an open border with one of the Schengen states. There are several non-EU countries in the Schengen area and some EU countries that have left the Schengen Agreement. You will find the full list below. The Schengen rules require all air carriers carrying passengers across the external Schengen border to verify, before boarding, that passengers have the travel documents and visas necessary for their entry.  Carriers transporting third-country nationals without the correct travel documents are liable to fines and must return entry impediments to the point of departure.
 The objective of this measure is to prevent illegal immigration. . . .